For pessimists, Africa is still a "lost continent" - a view that seems justified by negative reports of poverty or ongoing conflict. Optimists, on the other hand, point to positive developments that give reason to hope that, at least in some countries, the living situation for the population has improved sustainably.
The overall emphasis of current EU policies on increasing the “effectiveness” of return, including through the use of informal and non-binding readmission arrangements, raises a set of issues concerning the impact of those measures on relevant EU standards in a number of areas, including respect of fair and legal remedy procedures, identification and re-documentation of migrants, and the effective protection of personal data. This publication highlights the numerous problems and difficulties returnees face in Afghanistan, Syria, Tunisia, Senegal and Kosovo.
For this edition of Perspectives, the Heinrich Böll Foundation offered Africa-based thinkers and commentators an opportunity to critically reflect on what a “transition towards sustainability” means or should mean for the region. The articles gathered here go beyond ideological debates to also provide some case studies where green-economy principles have been applied.
For this edition of Perspectives the Heinrich Böll Foundation asked a number of African intellectuals, writers and analysts to provide their take on Africa’s relationship with Europe. The result is a small collection of interviews, short essays and comments that throw light on the complexities and complexes of this relationship, using analysis, imagery, experience, provocation and humour.