Feminist foreign policy is emerging as a new paradigm in international relations. The concept raises expectations of a more peaceful and just foreign policy, but its theoretical dimension and practical implementation are often not clearly defined. This toolkit tries to close this gap and clarify key terms of feminist foreign policy, as well as outline the practical application of the feminist approach to international diplomacy, to security, environmental, development, trade and migration policy.
The Societal Transfomation Scenario is a global 1.5°C mitigation scenario that challenges the notion of continued global economic growth and its compatibility with ambitious climate targets such as the 1.5°C limit. This summary brings together all the key points.
Many Russian stakeholders no longer fiercely reject the EU’s plans to tax carbon intensive imports, but look at the global decarbonisation efforts more foresightedly. Windows of opportunities for international cooperation appear. However, instead of joining the global shift to renewables, Russia develops its own approach with a strong role for traditional energy sources.
Since decarbonization goals and policies gained pace internationally in the course of 2021, the Russian leadership no longer denies the discourse on global climate change and a necessary transformation. Nevertheless, mainly the traditional energy sources remain in the focus. A broad debate within the country can hardly unfold. Civil society remains under tough pressure.
The business of the AIIB is the financing of large infrastructure projects such as power plants, dams and transport routes. Such investments are inherently associated with high environmental and social risks, as well as corruption and high levels of debt. This study provides an overview of the institution's close alignment with China and its transparency and information disclosure rules.