Urbanisation is a defining characteristic of life across the globe in the 21st century. Cities offer many opportunities for different types of people to forge a livelihood and lead a fulfilling social life. The diverse options are taken up in particular by women and people who renounce traditional, binary gender roles and norms and are thus often subject to various kinds of discrimination.
The term "environmental racism" emerged in the 1980s in the USA and articulates the racist effects of unequal distribution of environmental goods and risks. In light of the climate crisis, a new generation of people experiencing racism is asking whether and how climate change impacts reinforce the efficacy of environmental racism.